Commit 180429ec authored by François Ferry's avatar François Ferry
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doc(tutorials): redaction of "getting started" part.

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.. -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
.. _TutosMuseumsGettingStarted:
Getting started
===============
Installation of CubicWeb and dependencies
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
In this tutorial, we choose to install CubicWeb as a Python Package in a Python3 virtual
environment, with ``pip``; instead of using Debian installation.
We will also need to install psycopg2-binary if we use a postgresql database:
.. code-block:: console
python3 -m venv venv-tuto
source venv-tuto/bin/activate
pip install cubicweb[pyramid]
pip install psycopg2-binary
Create a cube
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Now we have CubicWeb installed, we will need to create a cube, which will contain our application.
We will call our cube ``tuto``:
.. code-block:: console
cubicweb-ctl newcube tuto
This command will lead to several questions, as a short description of the new cube. Then, it will
create a directory named :file:`cubicweb-tuto` reflecting the structure described in
:ref:`cubelayout`.
To install our new cube on the virtual environment, run in the :file:`cubicweb-tuto` directory:
.. code-block:: console
pip install -e .
All `cubicweb-ctl` commands are described in details in :ref:`cubicweb-ctl`.
Create and start our instance
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Now we created our cube, we need to instantiate it to launch our website:
.. code-block:: console
cubicweb-ctl create tuto tuto_instance
Several questions will be asked to parameter our new instance, most of them can be answered with
default value, some (as DB user and password) can't. At the end, it will be asked if we want to
create the database now. We do not need it right now, as we will create in further steps.
Then, we can launch our instance in debug mod (with ``-D`` option):
.. code-block:: console
cubicweb-ctl pyramid -D tuto_instance
You can now access the instance from http://localhost:8080
.. image:: ../../images/tutos-museum_empty_instance.png
:alt: The empty instance homepage.
As you can see, we already have several functionalities which come out-of-the-box, for instance
user management, data model schema displaying, etc.
Now, we need to design our data model, to be able to create and display some museums.
Defining our data model
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
We want to display some museums, each have a name, a postal address,
maybe one or several director, a geographical position (latitude and longitude) and are in a
city. Some of these concepts will be classes, others attributes.
Thus, we will write the following code in our :file:`cubicweb-tuto/schema.py` file:
.. sourcecode:: python
from yams.buildobjs import EntityType, String, Float, RelationDefinition, Int
class Museum(EntityType):
name = String()
latitude = Float()
longitude = Float()
postal_address = String()
class City(EntityType):
name = String()
zip_code = Int()
class Person(EntityType):
name = String()
email = String()
class is_in(RelationDefinition):
subject = 'Museum'
object = 'City'
cardinality = '1*'
class director(RelationDefinition):
subject = 'Museum'
object = 'Person'
cardinality = '**'
The first step is the import from the :mod:`yams` package necessary classes to build
the schema.
This file defines the following:
* a `Museum` has a name, a latitude, a longitude and a postal address as attributes.
- the name and postal address are strings;
- the latitude and longitude are floating numbers.
* a `City` has a name and a zip code as attributes.
* a `Person` has a name and an email as attributes
* a `Museum` must be linked to a `City` using the `is_in` relation
- ``*`` means a City may be linked to 0 to N Museum, ``1`` means a Museum must
be linked to one and only one City. For completeness, you can also use ``+`` for
1 to N, and ``?`` for 0 or 1.
* a `Museum` can be linked to 0 or several `Person` using the `director` relation, and
a `Person` can be linked to 0 or several `Museum`.
Of course, there are a lot of other data types and things such as constraints,
permissions, etc, that may be defined in the schema, but those will not be covered
in this tutorial.
In our case, our relations have only on subject type. Thus, we can define them directly
in `Museum` class, using `SubjectRelation`, like this:
.. sourcecode:: python
from yams.buildobjs import EntityType, String, Float, SubjectRelation, Int
class Museum(EntityType):
name = String()
latitude = Float()
longitude = Float()
is_in = SubjectRelation("City", cardinality="1*")
director = SubjectRelation("Person", cardinality="**")
postal_address = String()
class City(EntityType):
name = String()
zip_code = Int()
class Person(EntityType):
name = String()
email = String()
Once the schema created, we need to create our database, and then initialise it with the
aforementioned schema:
.. code-block:: console
cubicweb-ctl db-create tuto_instance
cubicweb-ctl db-init tuto_instance
.. Note::
At the end of the `db-create`, it is asked if we want to run database initialisation,
thus we can avoid running `db-init`.
.. Note::
In our case, we had no existing database, so we had to initialize a database.
But with a pre-existing database and schema, we have to use
migration scripts, see :ref:`migration` for more information about this topic.
If we launch again our instance, we should see our new entity types in the homepage:
City, Museum, Person; and for each, the number of instance of these types (currently 0, as
we don't have any of these entities).
.. image:: ../../images/tutos-museum_with_schema.png
:alt: The instance homepage, with new entity types.
By clicking on `data model schema`, we can see our data model, with our three classes
and two relations.
.. image:: ../../images/tutos-museum_data_model_schema.png
:alt: The instance data model schema, with new entity types.
Adding data
~~~~~~~~~~~
Now we have our entity types defined, we will see how to add some entities. To do this, we need to
be connected as administrator, using the `login` button at right top of the site, or visiting
http://localhost:8080/login. As you can see, we have more choices in the homepage, and beside
each entity type, we have a **+**, allowing to create a new entity of this type.
.. image:: ../../images/tutos-museum_admin.png
:alt: The instance homepage, in administrator mode.
As we built our schema, a Museum have to be linked to a City, so we first need to create a City
before adding a museum. To do this, we just have to click on the **+** beside `City (0)`,
and fill the form.
.. image:: ../../images/tutos-museum_city_creation.png
:alt: City entity creation.
As you can see, all the fields comes directly from the schema and the form is automatically
generated by CubicWeb.
When all the fields are fulfilled, we just have to validate, and we are redirected on the city
page, where we can see its different attributes, and on the left, several possible action; as
modify our entity or delete it.
.. image:: ../../images/tutos-museum_city_created.png
:alt: City entity view.
Now we have our first city, we will add its three museums. As for the city creation, we have an
autogenerated form; but with a little particularity: a field to choose the city to link
with our museum. This field must be fulfilled to create our entity.
.. image:: ../../images/tutos-museum_museum_creation.png
:alt: Museum entity creation.
As for the city, we are redirected on the entity view after its creation.
.. image:: ../../images/tutos-museum_museum_created.png
:alt: Museum entity view.
We then add two other museums. When we go back to the homepage, we can see all three museums
when we click on `Museum_plural (3)`.
.. image:: ../../images/tutos-museum_list_view.png
:alt: Our three museums.
If we click on `City` in the homepage, we do not have a list view, but our single entity view.
This is because in the first case, the framework chose to use the 'primary'
view since there is only one entity in the data to be displayed. As we have three museums,
the 'list' view is more appropriate and hence is being used.
There are various other places where |cubicweb| adapts to display data in the best
way, the main being provided by the view *selection* mechanism that will be detailed
later.
Customize museum primary view
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The 'primary' view (i.e. any view with the identifier set to 'primary') is the one used to
display all the information about a single entity. The standard primary view is one
of the most sophisticated views of all. It has several customisation points, but
its power comes with `uicfg`, allowing you to control it without having to
subclass it. More information are available here : :ref:`primary_view`.
Now we have several museums, we want an easier way to identify its city when we are on the
museum page. To achieve this, we will subclass `PrimaryView` and override `render_entity_title`
method in :file:`cubicweb-tuto/views.py`:
.. sourcecode:: python
from cubicweb.predicates import is_instance
from cubicweb.web.views.primary import PrimaryView
class MuseumPrimaryView(PrimaryView):
__select__ = is_instance("Museum")
def render_entity_title(self, entity):
"""Renders the entity title.
"""
city_name = entity.is_in[0].name
self.w(f"<h1>{entity.name} ({city_name})</h1>")
As stated before, CubicWeb comes with a system of views selection. This system is, among other
things, based on selectors declared with `__select__` (you'll find more information about this
in the :ref:`VRegistryIntro` chapter). As we want to customize museum primary view, we use
`__select__ = is_instance("Museum")` to tell CubicWeb this is only applicable when we display
a `Museum` entity.
Then, we just override the method used to compute title to add the city name. To reach the city
name, we use the relation `is_in` and choose the first and only one linked city, then ask
for its name.
.. image:: ../../images/tutos-museum_museum_with_city_name.png
:alt: Museum entity customized with city name view.
Use entities.py to add more logic
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
|cubicweb| provides an ORM to easily programmaticaly manipulate
entities. By default, entity types are instances of the :class:`AnyEntity` class,
which holds a set of predefined methods as well as property automatically generated for
attributes/relations of the type it represents.
You can redefine each entity to provide additional methods or whatever you want
to help you write your application. Customizing an entity requires that your
entity:
- inherits from :class:`cubicweb.entities.AnyEntity` or any subclass
- defines a :attr:`__regid__` linked to the corresponding data type of your schema
You may then want to add your own methods, override default implementation of some
method, etc...
As we may want reuse our custom museum title (with city name, as defined in previous section),
we will define it as a property of our Museum class.
To do so, write this code in :file:`cubicweb-tuto/entities.py`:
.. sourcecode:: python
from cubicweb.entities import AnyEntity, fetch_config
class Museum(AnyEntity):
__regid__ = "Museum"
@property
def title_with_city(self):
return f"{self.name} ({self.is_in[0].name})"
Then, we just have to use it our previously defined view in :file:`cubicweb-tuto/views.py`:
.. sourcecode:: python
from cubicweb.predicates import is_instance
from cubicweb.web.views.primary import PrimaryView
class MuseumPrimaryView(PrimaryView):
__select__ = is_instance("Museum")
def render_entity_title(self, entity):
"""Renders the entity title.
"""
self.w(f"<h1>{entity.title_with_city}</h1>")
Conclusion
~~~~~~~~~~
In this first part, we laid the cornerstone of our futur site, and discovered some core
functionalities of |Cubicweb|. In next parts, we will improve views and see how to import all
our data.
......@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@ out of the box CubicWeb functionnalities. Then, we will see how to enhance our v
templates or React components to have a better looking site. Finally, we will see how to manage
more data, and how to serialize them in RDF.
At the end of this tutorial, we should have a website which give information about all France's
At the end of this tutorial, you will have a website giving information about all France's
museums, describes them in RDF and present them on a map.
.. toctree::
......
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